The Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) in London is an initiative aimed at reducing emissions and car use in the city. The ULEZ targets the most polluting vehicles, and aims to improve air quality, particularly in outer London where the health impacts of air pollution are the greatest. The ULEZ also helps London reach its goal of achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2030 by encouraging more walking, cycling, and use of public transportation. The expansion of the ULEZ to cover most of London is expected to lead to a reduction of nearly 10% of NOx emissions from cars in outer London on top of the 30% reduction in road transport NOx emissions expected from the current ULEZ and tighter Low Emission Zone standards. Additionally, it is expected to reduce PM2.5 exhaust emissions from cars in outer London by nearly 16%, leading to a 1.5% overall reduction in PM2.5 emissions London-wide. However, the ULEZ also has some negative impacts. It may be an inconvenience for some residents and visitors, and disproportionately affect lower-income individuals who cannot afford to purchase a newer, low-emission vehicle. Banning car use in the ULEZ would be a drastic measure and would have significant economic and social impacts on Londoners. Therefore, it is important to have a comprehensive approach that balances the benefits and drawbacks of such measures, and take into account the needs and concerns of all stakeholders involved